Lawrence Webster Forrest (LWF), Fire Engineering and Fire Risk Management Consultants
Lawrence Webster Forrest (LWF), Fire Engineering and Fire Risk Management Consultants


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Lawrence Webster Forrest
Legion House
Lower Road

Tel: +44 (0)20 8668 8663 Fax: +44 (0)20 8668 8583

Technical Bulletins

Click on a bulletin to view details.

ARC09 Evacuation Modelling and the use of Building Exodus:-

This bulletin examines evacuation-modelling techniques and the use of one such programme, building Exodus. It reviews their use as a toll to determine possible areas, or deficiencies with a building and can be used to indicate where management procedures or actual structural building work could be necessary to assist in the building evacuation. The bulletin outlines the creation of the building model, the production and running of evacuation scenarios and simulations using the evacuation-modelling programme.

ARC08 Optimising the Cost of Fire Detection and Warning Systems:-

Establishing the correct level of expenditure for the design and installation of an alarm and detection system can be an extremely frustrating process. All professionals involved in this decision making process need to be aware of the fine balance between what is required in order to provide early warning in the event of fire and the cost against risk for life safety and property protection. In this edition we consider the cost of providing such systems and how to optimise those costs in order to get the best value for money.

ARC06 Fire Resistance Testing:-

Curiosity regarding the behaviour of fire in building elements dates back to the 18th century when professional engineers of the time became interested in fire safety. It wasn’t until 1918 however that the first standard was produced by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifically for the purpose of fire testing. It was this publication that paved the way for our own fire testing standards issued as BS 476 and first published in 1932. Soon after this, in 1935, the first fully equipped fire test laboratory in Britain was opened in Borehamwood Herts.

ARC05 Atria in Buildings:-

In this edition we look at atria in buildings and how BS 5588 Fire Precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings, part 7 "Code of practice for the incorporation of atria in buildings" aims to ensure that the incorporation of an atrium into a building does not present an increased risk to life as a result of fire and smoke spread.

ARC04 DD240 Fire Safety Engineering in Buildings:-

In this edition we look at the latest documentation for fire safety engineering in the form of "DD240 Fire Safety Engineering in Buildings" and how fire engineering techniques can be applied to fire safety in building design by showing compliance with the levels of safety attained by using prescriptive regulations.

ARC03 Optimising Smoke Control Through Building Design:-

In many complex buildings which incorporate atria and large unprotected spaces, legislation and codes of practice often require some form of smoke control to compensate for the loss of protected escape routes.

ARC02 Fire Growth in Compartments:-

For those involved in innovative or complex building design, the requirements to comply with BS 5588 and Approved Document B fire safety measures can often result in less than desirable design solutions. However an alternative to modifying design concepts is to utilise a fire engineered solution to acquire Building Control approval. Therefore in order to apply a fire-engineered solution it is essential that the designer understands the factors which affect fire growth and development.

ARC01 Fire Safety and the Disabled:-

Requirements for the provision of disabled access in buildings was first introduced into the Building Regulations over 15 years ago. Since then more detailed requirements have been incorporated in addition to other anti-discriminatory legislation, which place a statutory duty of care on building designers and occupiers to ensure that adequate measures are incorporated into new and existing buildings to enable the safe evacuation of people with disabilities.

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  • Fire Engineering Design and Risk Assessment - Firefighting & The Fire Service - Part 18

    In LWF's Fire Engineering blog series for Architects and others involved in building design, we have been looking at firefighting. In part 17, we began to look at how firefighting is undertaken by the Fire Service and their objectives and modes of operation when arriving at a fire. In part 19, tactical firefighting is discussed.While the general objectives of tactical firefighting were given in the last blog, there are various methods used by firefighters...


  • Fire Safety for Healthcare Premises - Open-sided Car Parks - Part 52

    In LWFs blog series for healthcare professionals, the aim is to give information on best practice of fire safety in hospitals and other healthcare premises. In part 51 of this series, we were looking at the potential for fire spread from one area of a building to another through external surfaces, before moving on to begin to look at the necessary arrangements for car parks. In part 52, we continue on that theme by considering...


  • Facilities Management & Fire Safety - Calculating RSET - Part 9

    In LWFs blog series for those who work in Facilities Management or who have an interest in or responsibility for fire safety we have been looking at fire safety engineering. In part 8, we looked at how ASET (Available Safe Egress Time) is calculated and how this should always be more than the RSET (Required Safe Egress Time). While ASET involves a series of calculations relating to fire growth and the building itself, RSET, also...


  • Fire Engineering Design and Risk Assessment - Firefighting & The Fire Service - Part 17

    In LWF’s fire engineering blog series for Architects and others in the business of building design, we have been looking at firefighting. In part 16, we discussed first-aid firefighting by the occupancy and the use of hose reels to do so. In part 17, we will begin to look at firefighting from the point of view of the Fire Services.The particular objectives of the Fire Service in a given situation will be decided upon...


  • Fire Safety for Healthcare Premises - External Fire Spread - Part 51

    In LWF’s blog series for healthcare professionals, the aim is to give information on best practice of fire safety in hospitals and other healthcare premises. In part 50 of this series, we discussed the potential for external fire spread including calculating unprotected areas and consideration of the surfaces of external walls and roofs. In part 51, we continue looking at external fire spread, starting with junctions of different elements.At the junction of wall and...


Case Studies

The Wohl Neuroscience Institute - Fire Safety, Strategy & Engineering
Key Facts: Client: King’s Clinical Neuroscience Institute Project Manager: MACE Ltd Designers: Devereux Architects/Allies and Morrison Approximate Size: 7,400m2 Description of the Project:...

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General Bulletins

Fire - The External Risk
When we consider fire safety, our focus is normally from within, what can we do to prevent the occurrence of fire and how we can limit its damage.  Whilst this is the correct stance to take, we m...

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Technical Bulletins

Evacuation Modelling - Factor in Human Behaviour
Evacuation of buildings can be analyzed in different ways. Approved Document B (ADB) which provides guidance on meeting the requirements of the England and Wales Building Regulations with regard to fi...

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