Lawrence Webster Forrest (LWF), Fire Engineering and Fire Risk Management Consultants
Lawrence Webster Forrest (LWF), Fire Engineering and Fire Risk Management Consultants


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Lawrence Webster Forrest
Legion House
Lower Road

Tel: +44 (0)20 8668 8663 Fax: +44 (0)20 8668 8583

Technical Bulletins

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ARC19 The Times They Are a Changing

When Bob Dylan wrote 'The Times They Are A Changing' he almost certainly was not thinking about British and European Standards, or even American ones. However the words certainly ring true when it comes to British Fire Legislation and Design Standards where major changes have or are occurring, or are proposed. For the range of fire law, standards and codes that have become familiar over recent years, changes are either in place or are proposed. The purpose of this bulletin is to overview one such significant and proposed change. The bulletin will therefore look in some detail at draft British Standards (BS) 9999-2 'Code of practice for fire safety in the design, construction and use of buildings' which is intended as a replacement for most of the BS 5588 'Fire Preacuations in the design construction and use of buildings'.

ARC18 Room In The Roof

When home owners are looking to provide more living space within their dwellings one solution is to move upwards by either converting the loft/roof space or adding an additional storey. An apparently simple solution to the problem, but one that, dependent upon the height of the proposed extention can attract more stringent fire safety requirements than may already be provided in the dwelling. This is understandable as, in the UK, fire statistics indicate that most deaths from fire occur in the home. The most recent statistics show that dwelling fire rose by 1% in 1999 to 72,100 resulting in 466 deaths and 14600 injuries. In this bulletin we examine the practical guidance to meet the fire safety requirements of the Building Regulations in England and Wales, as given in the Approved Document B.

ARC17 Burning Issues

Completing a building on time and to budget ought not to be a difficult task. Mankind has been building structures for centuries, so why is the whole process fraught with difficulties? In most cases, it is not the act of construction but the bureaucracy and the formalised procedures involved that causes delays to the architect's carefully planned programme. In this bulletin we examine the statutory consultation process from the viewpoint of a consulting fire engineer and attempt to clarify the procedures involved.

ARC16 Fire Prevention on Construction Sites

Recent Home Office Statistics estimate that there were approximately 400 fires within the construction industry in 1999, 60% of which were started maliciously. This follows a similar pattern seen in recent years and consequently has repercussions for all parties involved in any construction project affected by fire.

ARC15 The Effects of False Alarms

With Architects considered the principal link between the client and the various members of the design team and therefore ultimately responsible for every aspect of a building's design, appreciating the interruptions and the cost implications of dealing with continuous false alarms is an invaluable skill. An understanding of the fundamental aspects of false alarms and the industry's response by research and development gives an architect a valuable advantage when executing a cost effective and functional design brief.

Arc14 The Economics of Fire Safety:-

We are all aware of the dangers of ignoring fire safety, especially when the event happens however, no matter what the consequences, we all wish we hadn’t The importance of alternative fire management procedures and fire safety policies is rarely understood. The economic consequences of such misunderstandings can have a devastating effect should a major fire occur. For those charged with comparing the cost effectiveness of fire safety strategies, many find the analytical difficulties a considerable hurdle particularly when the value of the item to be protected bears little relation to the cost of a fire. Fire safety is no longer bound by statutory regulations and standards due to the acceptance of fire engineered solutions, however many budgets set aside for fire safety rarely include the full extent of fire management costs and net value changes.

ARC13 Human Behaviour in Building Design:-

"The concept of panic tends to be used as a way of blaming the public after an event as a "let-out clause" for anyone in an official capacity (e.g. Architect, Engineer, Designer etc.), who might have accepted responsibility for the loss of life". (Sime 1980) Disasters are rare, and the number of deaths compared with the accumulated death through other activities is relatively low. However, the psychological, social and political effect is very damaging. Disasters in recent times have highlighted the need for appraisal of human behaviour, safety management and communication. This is demonstrated through a growth towards the incorporation of human factors and management into modern building design. The incoming BS 7974, which will replace the DD 240, includes a fire safety management section. Also in the foreword in the "Appraisal of Sports Grounds" (IStructE, 1991) it recommends an understanding of crowd and human management in both normal and emergency situations. As architects and engineers, we are responsible for setting the attitudes for human understanding, management and communication.

ARC12 Arson Prevention by Design:-

Historically, arson prevention has been seen as a physical precautionary measure with the provision of high fences, visible security lighting and big locks in order to deter any would be assailant. However, with architects and designers becoming more concerned with the external aesthetics of a building as well as the internal functional requirements, the use of environmentally based protectional features in the design, are becoming increasingly popular. While protecting buildings from the threat of arson and terrorism is not a statutory requirement; its thoughtful introduction during the planning stage can prove increasingly cost effective as opposed to modifying an existing building upon completion. Therefore in this bulletin we consider simple cost effective methods of designing in ‘arson hostile features.

ARC11 The Building Regulations Approved Document B (ADB) Fire Safety:-

There can be few amongst us who are unaware of the release of the new and amended version of Approved Document B. ADB2000 as it is sure to become known, replaces the 1992 edition and comes into effect on 1st July 2000. The format and layout remains largely unchanged and to those familiar with the contents, it seems to be as user friendly as its predecessor. However, changes have been made and some of these changes will undoubtedly affect the way in which buildings are designed and constructed. Other changes are relatively cosmetic and have been made to align the recommendations made in ADB2000 to those detailed in the various fire-related British Standards. As its not possible to detail all the changes, only the major changes or those that are likely to have a significant effect have been commented on from a fire engineering perspective.

ARC10 Architectural Fire Engineering:-

Fire safety engineering has often been associated with only the most complex of buildings, or when trying to gain statutory acceptance for a novel design. In this bulletin we consider fire engineering as a discipline and the principals of risk assessment and how to apply those principles to the whole question of fire safety provision in buildings.

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  • Fire Engineering Design and Risk Assessment - Firefighting & External Water Supplies - Part 27

    In LWF’s Fire Engineering blog series for Architects and others in the building design business, we have been looking at fire safety engineering. In part 26, we looked at how the choice of fire hydrant can affect the efficiency of delivery and by working out the additional time required to prime an underground hydrant when compared to a pillar hydrant with instantaneous couplings, it was established there could be as much as 2 minutes delay...


  • Fire Safety for Healthcare Premises - Venting of Basements - Part 61

    In LWFs blog series for healthcare professionals, the aim is to give information on best practice of fire safety in hospitals and other healthcare premises. In part 60 of this series, the placement of fire hydrants in relation to hospital buildings was discussed. In part 61, we will look at the effects of smoke on basement levels and the use of venting.A fire which starts in a basement or involves a basement level causes...


  • Facilities Management & Fire Safety - Insurers & Property Protection - Part 8

    In LWF’s blog series for those who work in Facilities Management or who have an interest in or responsibility for fire safety, we have been looking at the part Insurers have played in property protection over the years. In part 7, we discussed the role the FOC played in producing rules and regulations not only for building standards but also for fire protection products. In part 8, we will continue looking at the impact of...


  • Fire Engineering Design and Risk Assessment - Firefighting & External Water Supplies - Part 26

    In LWF’s fire engineering blog series for Architects and other interested parties in the building design business, we have been looking at firefighting. In part 25, we looked at how hydrants should be located in relation to the building perimeter and the likely position of a Fire Service pump upon attending a fire at the premises. In part 26, we continue looking at location and also the type of hydrant provided in relation to the...


  • Fire Safety for Healthcare Premises - Fire Mains - Part 60

    In LWFs blog series for healthcare professionals, the aim is to give information on best practice of fire safety in hospitals and other healthcare premises. In part 59 of this series, LWF discussed the requirements for healthcare buildings with a hospital street and which do not require a fire-fighting shaft. In part 60, we will look at the provision of fire mains.Fire mains must be provided in every firefighting shaft, or in some instances,...


Case Studies

The Wohl Neuroscience Institute - Fire Safety, Strategy & Engineering
Key Facts: Client: King’s Clinical Neuroscience Institute Project Manager: MACE Ltd Designers: Devereux Architects/Allies and Morrison Approximate Size: 7,400m2 Description of the Project:...

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General Bulletins

Fire - The External Risk
When we consider fire safety, our focus is normally from within, what can we do to prevent the occurrence of fire and how we can limit its damage.  Whilst this is the correct stance to take, we m...

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Technical Bulletins

Evacuation Modelling - Factor in Human Behaviour
Evacuation of buildings can be analyzed in different ways. Approved Document B (ADB) which provides guidance on meeting the requirements of the England and Wales Building Regulations with regard to fi...

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